Rulers in the Hellenistic and Maccabean Eras
by Felix Just, S.J., Ph.D.

Note: The hyperlinked names are mentioned in the Bible; see the explicit references below the chart.
Dates (all BCE) refer to years of reigning, not lifespans. Some dates are uncertain or only approximate; overlapping dates are due to co-regencies.

Hellenistic (Greek) Rulers:
Jewish High Priests (in Jerusalem):
Alexander the Great (336-323 BCE)
Wars of the Diadochi (323-305)
Jaddua (ca. 350-320 BCE)
Onias I (ca. 320-290)

Simon I (ca. 290-275)
?Eleazar (ca. 275-260?)
?Manasseh (ca. 260-245?)
Onias II (ca. 245-220)
Simon II "The Righteous" (ca. 220-198)

Onias III (ca. 198-174)

Jason (174-171)
Menelaus (171-161)
Alcimus (161-159)
    [No high priest in Jerusalem, 159-152]
Jonathan Maccabeus (152-142)
Simon Maccabeus (142-135)
John Hyrcanus (135-104)
Aristobulus (104-103)
Alexander Jannaeus (103-76)
    [Alexandra Salome ruled 76-67;
    with son Hyrcanus II as high priest]
Aristobulus II (67-63)
Hyrcanus II (63-40)
Antigonus (40-37)
Ptolemaic Rulers (in Egypt):
Ptolemy I "Soter" (305-282; a.k.a. Ptolemy Lagi)
Ptolemy II "Philadelphus" (282-246)

Ptolemy III "Euergetes" (246-221)
Ptolemy IV "Philopator" (221-204)

Ptolemy V "Epiphanes" (204-180)
    Cleopatra I (180-176)
Ptolemy VI "Philometor" (180-145)
    Cleopatra II (175-116)
Ptolemy VII "Neos Philopator" (145)
Ptolemy VIII "Euergetes II Physcon" (145-116)
    Cleopatra III (116-101)
Ptolemy IX "Soter II Lathyrus" (116-107, 88-80)
Ptolemy X "Alexander I" (107-88)
    Cleopatra Berenice (101-88)
Ptolemy XI "Alexander II" (80)
Ptolemy XII "Auletes" (80-59, 55-51)
    Cleopatra VII (51-30)
Ptolemy XIII (51-47)
Ptolemy XIV (47-44)
Seleucid Rulers (in Syria):
Seleucus I "Nicator" (312-281)
Antiochus I "Soter" (281-261)
Antiochus II "Theos" (261-246)

Seleucus II "Callinicus" (246-225)
Seleucus III "Soter Ceraunos" (225-223)
Antiochus III "the Great" (223-187)

Seleucus IV "Philopator" (187-175)
Antiochus IV "Epiphanes" (175-164)
Antiochus V "Eupator" (164-162)
Demetrius I "Soter" (162-150)
Alexander "Epiphanes" (Balas; 150-145)
Demetrius II "Nicator" (145-141, 129-125)
Antiochus VI"Epiphanes Dionysius" (145-142)
Trypho (142-138)
Antiochus VII "Sidetes" (138-129)

[descendents of Demetrius II and Antiochus VII 
fight for control, with many different rulers and some
rival claimants until the Romans come in 65 BCE]

PTOLEMIES (rulers in Egypt) mentioned in the Bible (including the Apocrypha/Deuterocanonical books):

SELEUCIDS (rulers in Syria) mentioned in the Bible (Deuterocanonical books) and Apocrypha:

JEWISH HIGH PRIESTS of the early Hellenistic Era mentioned in the Bible (including the Deuterocanonical books):

MACCABEAN/HASMONEAN RULERS (many of whom also served as High Priests):


See also my summary of Rulers in Israel during the Roman Era

Electronic New Testament Educational Resources

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This page was last updated on February 12, 2012
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